Ashy Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros cineraceus)
HB: 37-42; T: 25;28; FA: 33-37; E:16; HF: 5-6.
The smallest of the Thai Hipposideros is quite similar to H. bicolor but is rather smaller with relatively smaller eras, which do not reach the end of the mizzle when laid forwards. As in many Hipposideros, there are two colour phases, being grey and brown; the wings are medium brown. The ears are large, broad and blunt, covered with hair for half their lenght. The nose leaf is simple closely resembling that of H. fulvus. The internarial septum is markedly swollen into two kidney shaped lobes, but the lateral narial lappets are rather low. The intermediate nose leaf as 4 dark glands. As in H. fulvus, the posterior nose leaf is indistinctly divided by three vertical septa. The scull is rather small, with narrow zygomata, the nasal region is inflated. The lower first premolar is larger in Bicolor, over half the height of the lower second premolar. The upper median incisors are slightly longer than the outer upper incisors; all upper incisors are sharply pointed. The lower incisors are low and trifid. The upper first premolar is small, compressed between the canine and second upper premolar, but located within the tooth row.
This species is widely distributed from South Asia into much
of Southeast Asia. In South Asia this species occurs in India (Assam, Arunachal
Pradesh, Haryana, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal and West Bengal),
Nepal and Pakistan (Punjab) at elevations ranging from 62 to 1,480 m asl (Molur
et al. 2002). Although it has only been recorded from only a few locations in
the region, it is quite widespread (Molur et al. 2002). In Southeast Asia, the
species is found from Myanmar in the west, through parts of
PDR, Vietnam and possibly Cambodia (presence here needs to be confirmed, G.
Csorba pers. comm.) to Peninsular Malaysia, and from here has been recorded on
the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and parts of Borneo (Indonesia and Malaysia).
Although there are reports of this species from Philippines, there appears to be
no conclusive evidence of the species presence here (L. Heaney pers. comm.).
India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Pakistan; Thailand; Vietnam
The abundance, population size and trends for this species are
not known in South Asia (Molur et al. 2002). In Thailand has been found roosting
in groups of up to 30 individuals (S. Bumrungsri pers. comm.). It is usually
captured in small numbers in surveys in Lao PDR (C. Francis pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat and Ecology:
There is little information available on the natural
history of this species. In Southeast Asia, it seems to be a largely lowland
species that has been recorded roosting in caves (S. Bumrungsri pers. comm.). In
South Asia this species roosts in hollows of trees in forests (Molur et al.
2002). The young are born after a gestation period of 180 days (Bates and
This species is threatened over much of its range by
deforestation, generally resulting from logging operations for conversion of
land to agriculture and as human settlements. It is also facing threat due to
tourism related developmental activities (Molur et al. 2002).
: In South Asia, although there are no direct conservation measures in place, the species has been recorded from several protected areas in India such as the Kalakkad Mundunthurai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu (Vanitharani et al. 2006) and from Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Andhra Pradesh (C. Srinivasulu pers. comm.). Detailed studies on taxonomy, distribution, abundance, reproduction, ecology, threats and population monitoring are recommended (Molur et al. 2002). In Southeast Asia, although it is present in a number of protected areas further protection of suitable forest habitat is needed.