Cantor's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros galeritus)

Description:

Slightly larger than bicolor. The colour is variable from grey to bright red to dark brown with juveniles very dark grey or black. The under parts are greyish brown and grey in juveniles. The nose leaf, ears and wings are brown. The eras are short, broad and pointed and continually move when the bat is at rest; they are haired for 3/4 of their lenght. The anterior nose leaf is well developed, extending almost to the end of the muzzle  with 2 lateral supplementary leaflets on each side. The posterior leaf is evenly rounded behind, the surface divided into  3 cells by vertical septa. The skull is short and broad, with the inflated braincase and lower sagittal crest; the supraorbital ridges are sharply defined. The upper first premolar is minute, displaced from the tooth row so that the canine and second upper premolar are in contact or nearly so

Range Description:

 This species is widely distributed in South Asia and Southeast Asia. In South Asia it is presently known from Bangladesh (Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Sylhet and Rajshahi divisions), India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) and Sri Lanka (Central, North Central, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Uva and Western provinces) (Molur et al. 2002, Srinivasulu et al. in press). It is very widely distributed and has been recorded from sea level to an elevation of 1,100 m asl (Molur et al. 2002). On mainland Southeast Asia, the species has been recorded from Western and Southern Thailand (including Terutau Island), Cambodia (four specimens have been recorded but no exact localities are available [Borissenko and Kruskop 2003]), southern Lao PDR (Francis pers. comm.), Southern Vietnam, and Peninsular Malaysia (including Penang Island). Within insular Southeast Asia, the species has been recorded from the islands of Sumatra, Bangka and Java (all to Indonesia), the island of Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia), and from the island of Sanana in the Sula Islands (Indonesia) (Flannery 1995). There is a record from the island of Bali (Indonesia) but it may be erroneous (Kock and Dobat 2000).

Countries: Native:

Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia (Kalimantan); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Sri Lanka; Thailand; Vietnam

 Population:

 This species, though widespread throughout its range in South Asia, is not very common as the localities are scattered and the colony size is small. The abundance, population size and trends for this species are not known (Molur et al. 2002). Bates and Harrison (1997) call this a comparatively rare bat as only isolated individuals have been recorded. In Southeast Asia this species is never abundant, but is widespread and not rare.
Population Trend: Unknown


 Habitat and Ecology:

This species is found in dry to wet lowland forests, but have also been recorded from rubber estates in Southeast Asia. This species roosts in small colonies or family units in old mines and deep caves., cracks, culverts and crevices in old buildings, caves, among large boulders, overhanging ledges, tunnels, dungeons, forts, temples and churches. On Borneo it has been found roosting in caves in small groups with H. cervinus, as well as in colonies of hundreds of animals (Payne et al. 1998). On Sanana Island it has been found in a colony of several hundred individuals sharing a large cave with six other bat species (Flannnery 1995). It is a low flier and feeds on beetles and other insects (Bates and Harrison 1997). In Sri Lanka, the species is observed to change roost sites frequently (W. Yapa and P.C.M.B. Digana pers. comm.). These bats are very territorial and old males may even be solitary and are found in regularly used roosting sites where the daily scratching of there claws keeps the face of the rock clean and rough. But for there evening flights out of the cave, these bats form large social gatherings. Every day in the early afternoon they begin to move from there roost site deep within the cave. This gross movement is  an unstoppable stream, but each individual bat in fact makes only a short flight before with unfailing precision, it somersaults abruptly in mid air and in the same movement reaches out and clings with its sharply clawed feet to the rock. By a succession of leap fogging flights the bats move down to the final forming up point. which beyond this point there is no halt.
Systems: Terrestrial

 Major Threat(s):

There are no major threats to this species as a whole. In South Asia, the foraging grounds of this species are threatened by deforestation, generally resulting from logging operations and conversion of land for agriculture. It is also threatened due to disturbance to roosting sites and disturbance to caves (Molur et al. 2002).

 Conservation Actions:

 This has been recorded from a number of protected areas. In India, the species has been recorded from the Melghat Tiger Reserve, Borivili National Park in Maharashtra, Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh and Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Andhra Pradesh (Srinivasulu, 2004). In South Asia, further studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, breeding biology and general ecology of this species. Populations of this species should be monitored to record changes in abundance and distribution. Public awareness is needed to mitigate future threats to this species (Molur et al. 2002).

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