Intermediate Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus affinis)
HB:58-63; T:20-30; FA:46-50; E: 16-20; HF: 11-13.
The upper parts are greyish to yellowish brown with the hairs darkest at the tips. The wings are dark brown, the ears are medium brown and shorter than the head. The anterior nose leaf is broad, but does not conceal the muzzle when viewed from above. The anterior margin bears a notch at the midpoint over the upper lip, behind which a very slight groove extends backwards to the base of the sella. The sella is pandurate with concave sides; it as no lappets. The connecting process is semicircular and the lancet is wedge shaped. The lower lip as 3 grooves.
This very widespread species is present throughout much of
South Asia, southern and Central China and Southeast Asia. In South Asia, this
species is presently known from Bangladesh (Sylhet division) (Srinivasulu and
Srinivasulu 2005), Bhutan (Gedu), India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal
Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal and West Bengal) and Nepal
(Central and Western Nepal) (Molur et al.2002). In China, it has been reported
from Hunan, Shanxii, Hubei, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi,
Guangdong, Hong Kong, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Anhui and Hainan island. In Southeast
Asia, it ranges from Myanmar in the west, through Thailand, Lao PDR and
Vietnam, into Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java and the Lesser Sunda
Islands), to southern parts of the island of Borneo (Indonesia and Malaysia).
Reports of this species from Cambodia cannot currently be confirmed (Kock 2000).
It has been recorded from 290 to at least 2,000 m asl (China).
Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India (Andaman Is.); Indonesia (Kalimantan, Lesser Sunda Is., Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Nepal; Singapore; Thailand; Vietnam
It is a highly adaptable and common species.
Population Trend: Stable
Habitat and Ecology:
In South Asia, this is a highly adaptable species. It roosts
in caves, and is found commonly in man-made habitats such as orchards, degraded
habitats and agriculture areas (M. Muni pers. comm. February 2002, Molur et al.
2002). In Southeast Asia, it has been recorded from primary and secondary
forest, occasionally in cultivated areas, but is not found in urban areas. It
has a tendency to roost in caves, and colonies can be large, up to thousands of
Individuals. Species forages in under story of forest, and is not thought to be
dependent on water. In China it is considered to be a cave roosting species,
found both in the wet western highlands and in the more tropical eastern
There appear to be no major threats to this widespread and
somewhat adaptable species. However, limestone extraction may be a threat
locally in South Asia (Molur et al. 2002).
This species has been recorded from a number of protected areas. Other than general research activities, no direct conservation measures are needed for this species as a whole.