Intermediat Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros larvatus
HB:60-80; T: 30-45;FA: 52-65; E: 20-23; HF: 10-15.
There are two colour phases, dark brown and reddish brown; the underparts are smokey grey with brown tips. The mantle is pale brown,; the ears, nose leaf, and wings are brown. The throat is sparsely haired, and there is a well marked frontal sac in males, well less marked in females. The ears are large and broad and triangular in shape. The nose leaf is similar to bicolor, but with 3 lateral supplementary leaflets on each side of the anterior leaf; the anterior leaf is simple, with a median notch. It does not coyer the end of the muzzle. The supraorbital ridges are barely developed and the zygomata are slender. The first upper premolar is tightly compressed between the canine and the second upper premolar.
This species complex is widely distributed, ranging from
northeastern South Asia, throughout much of Southern China and mainland
Southeast Asia, into several islands within insular Southeast Asia. In South
Asia this species is found in Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet divisions) and
India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya) in South Asia (Molur et al.
2002). In China, it has been recorded from Hainan island, Guangdong, Guangxi and
Guizhou (Smith and Xie 2008). On mainland Southeast Asia, it is distributed
widely across Myanmar (K.M. Swe pers. comm., Bates and Harrison 1997, Molur et
al. 2002), ranging into Thailand, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam and
Peninsular Malaysia. In insular Southeast Asia, it has been recorded from
numerous islands including the Mentawi Islands, Sumatra, Java, Bali, the Kangean
Islands (all to Indonesia) and the southern part of the island of Borneo
(Kalimantan [Indonesia] and possibly Sarawak [Malaysia]). This species has been
taken from sea level up to around 2,000 m asl.
Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
As currently defined this is a common bat throughout
much of its range (Bates and Francis pers. comm.). In South Asia, this species
is distributed across three northeastern states of India, but the sightings are
sparse and few between. Only two colonies of less than 100 individuals have been
recorded in the last decade (Molur et al. 2002). In northern Myanmar, it is one
of the more common bats living in big colonies. However, there is a decline in
their numbers due to mining and it is estimated to have declined by 10% over the
last 10-15 years (K.M. Swe pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat and Ecology:
In Myanmar it is found in a variety of habitats from highly
disturbed agricultural land to secondary forest, in dry zones and humid areas
(P. Bates pers. comm.; K.M. Swe pers. comm.; Bates and Harrison 1997). It is
often associated with limestone caves in Myanmar and Indonesia (A. Suyanto pers.
comm.). On Peninsular Malaysia, the species has been recorded from primary
lowland tropical moist forest (Frances pers. comm.). In South Asia, this species
roosts in caves, mine shafts, pagodas and buildings (Molur et al. 2002). It is
also found roosting in human habitations (P. Bates pers. comm.).
There are no major threats to this species as a whole.
In South Asia, there currently appear to be no major threats to this species in
northeastern India. The situation in Bangladesh is not known. However,
disturbance to roosting sites such as caves by humans may pose a threat to this
species as observed in Meghalaya (A. Tabah pers. comm.). In neighbouring Myanmar
mining activities in limestone caves for manufacture of cement is a threat to
some populations of this species (K.M. Swe pers. comm., Molur et al. 2002). It
may be affected by hunting in some parts of its range (Francis pers. comm.).
This species is present in a number of protected areas. In South Asia, it has been recorded from protected areas in India like Orang National Park in Assam. Surveys, habitat management, population monitoring are important recommendations. In areas where this taxon is facing threat due to mining activities public awareness is needed (Molur et al. 2002). Further studies are needed to clarify the taxonomic status of populations currently allocated to this species.