Java Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus)
HB: 45-56; T: 31-38; FA: 31-35, E:11-13; HF:7-8.
The fur as frosting due to the individual hairs being dark at their base and pale at their tips; the underparts are paler in colour. The ears and wings are dark brown. The first upper premolar is displaced inward, but still prevents the canine from being in direct contact with the second upper premolar.
This widespread species has been recorded from Northern and
Central South Asia, Southern China, and much of Southeast Asia. In South Asia
this species is presently known from Afghanistan (Balkh, Faryab, Kabul, Konarha
and Kunduz provinces), Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet divisions,), India
(Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Nagaland, Nicobar Islands, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal), Nepal (Central)
and Pakistan (North West Frontier Province and Punjab) (Das 2003; Korad et al.
2007; Molur et al. 2002; Srinivasulu and Srinivasulu 2005). In South Asia, it
has been recorded up to 2,380 m asl. In China, it has been recorded from Xizang
and Yunnan (Smith and Xie 2008). In Southeast Asia, it ranges widely, from
Myanmar in the west, through Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia and
Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore. With insular Southeast Asia, the species is
distributed in Indonesia (Sumatra, Bangka, Java, Flores, Karakelang), the island
of Timor (East Timor and Indonesia), on the island of Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia
and Malaysia) to the Philippines, where it has been recorded from the islands of
Camiguin, Luzon (Benguet , Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, and
Rizal provinces), Mindanao (Bukidnon, and Davao del Sur provinces), Mindoro,
Negros, Palawan, Panay, Reinhard, and Sibuyan (Heaney et al., 1998). In the
Philippines, it has been recorded from sea level to around 2,250 m asl (Mount
Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Vietnam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.
This species is widely distributed, common and the population
seems stable and doing well (Molur et al. 2002; C. Francis pers. comm.; Sedlock
pers. comm. 2006).
Population Trend: Stable
Habitat and Ecology:
This species is found in varied habitat types from primary and
secondary forested regions, agricultural landscapes (including rubber
plantations) to urban areas. It roosts in trees, crevices and cracks in walls
and ceilings of houses, tiles of huts, old buildings, temples, under bark and in
holes of large trees, signboards, tree hollows in small groups of few
individuals. It is an early flyer with a slow fluttering flight and hunts on
flies, ants and other small insects. There are three breeding seasons and two
young ones are born (Sanborn et al., 1952; Bates and Harrison 1997; Heaney et
al., 1998; S. Bumrungsri pers. comm.; P. Bates pers. comm.).
Overall there are no major threats to this adaptable species. In South Asia, it is locally threatened by deforestation for timber, firewood and conversion to agricultural use. It is also threatened by disturbance to roosting sites by humans (Molur et al. 2002).
This species occurs in a number of protected areas in Southeast Asia. In South Asia, although there are no direct conservation measures in place, the species has been recorded from several protected areas including Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh and Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Andhra Pradesh (C. Srinivasulu pers. comm. 6 March 2008). Further studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, breeding biology and general ecology of this species. Populations of this species should be monitored to record changes in abundance and distribution (Molur et al. 2002).