Lesser Long Toothed or Long Tongued Fruit Bat (Macroglossus minimus)
HB: 60-65; T:3-4; FA; 38-42; E:13-18; HF: 13-16; W; 12-18g
Having a clawed index finger, very short tail, long, feathery tongue, pale bark pelage without marks, and light brown membranes. It as a shorter rostrum than sobrinus. It as a total skull length of 26-28 mm as opposed to sobrinus 30 mm. Also a shorter muzzle and nostrils pointing more forward. There is a deep internarial groove that extends to the margin of the upper lip; there are shallower lateral grooves about 1mm on each side of the median groove. The underparts are lighter than in sobrinus
This widespread species ranges from Vietnam, Cambodia,
Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, to the Natuna Islands, Borneo (Brunei,
Indonesia and Malaysia), the Philippines, the island of Sulawesi to the island
of Timor (East Timor and Indonesia), and through much of the Moluccan Islands
(Indonesia) including the islands of Halmahera, Buru, Seram and Ambon. It is
present on the Kai Islands and the Aru Islands and throughout much of the island
of New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), the Bismarck Archipelago (Papua
New Guinea) and Fergusson Island (Papua New Guinea). It is present on the island
of Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) and is found throughout much of the Solomon
Islands. It ranges across much of Northern Australia (Corbet and Hill 1992;
Flannery 1995; Strahan 1995; Bonaccorso 1998).
In the Philippines this species was recorded from Batu-bato, Biliran, Bohol, Boracay, Busuanga, Cagayan de Sulu, Calauit, Caluya, Camiguin, Carabao, Catanduanes, Cebu, Dinagat, Leyte, Luzon (Albay, Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Kalinga, La Guna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tarlac provinces), Marinduque, Maripipi , Masbate, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Oriental, South Cotabato, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces), Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Polillo, Reinard, Sanga-sanga, Seimirara, Siargao, Sibay, Sibutu, Sibuyan, Simunul, and Siquijor (Alcala and Alviola 1970; Catibog-Sinha 1987; Heaney et al. 1998, Heaney et al. 2004).
Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Vietnam
It is a common species (Strahan 1995; Bonaccorso 1998).
It is abundant in disturbed areas but rare in old growth forest. In the
Philippines, it is abundant and widespread, with populations stable or
increasing (Utzurrum 1992; Heaney et al. 1998).
Population Trend: Stable
Habitat and Ecology:
It is found in both primary and secondary tropical moist
forest, it has also been reported from paper bark woodlands, mangroves, swamp
forest, plantations, rural gardens and urban areas. In the Philippines, it
occurs in virtually every habitat from sea level up to at least 2,250 m asl
(Heaney et al. 1998), preferring disturbed habitats.
It usually roosts as single animals, or in small groups, under large leaves (such as palm fronds), under branches and loose bark, in bamboo or in abandoned buildings. The females give birth to a single young three times per year (Flannery 1995; Strahan 1995; Bonaccorso 1998). Gestation time of that species in Malaysia ranges from 110 to 130 days, followed by a lactation period of 60 to 70 days. On average, the length between pregnancies ranges from 140 to 160 days, so that Macroglossus minimus likely produces 2 to 2.5 offspring per year. Like most other bats, they give birth to a single young. The degree of seasonality present in reproduction of M. minimus varies with location. For example, reproduction on the island of Maripipi was not seasonal, while 9 km away on Biliran reproduction was more synchronous. (Bates and Harrison, 1997; Lekagul and McNeely, 1988) During the day, when inactive, Macroglossus minimus of Papua New Guinea roost individually. They have home ranges of around 5.8 hectare with very little overlap. This, along with prominent sternal scent glands, suggests territoriality, although this has not been definitively shown. In addition, Macroglossus minimus engages in “probing forays," potentially to scout new habitat. When temperatures reach 11-29 degrees Celsius, Macroglossus minimus enter a torpid state, maintaining a body temperature of 2-5 degrees Celsius above the ambient temperature. (Bonaccorso and McNab, 1997; Winkelmann, et al., 2003)
There are no major threats to this species.
The species occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range.