Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura monticola)
HB: 40-45; T:10-11; FA:43-45; HF:6-7; E: 10-11; W: 30-40g.
The pelage is dark brown or dark copper, with the upper surface of the interformeral membrane slightly thinly furred; hair also extends up the basal third of the ears. The eyes are black, triangular in shape, and erectile, becoming limp when the bat is at rest; the tragus is slightly narrower at the midpoint than at either end. The tail is shorter than the interfemoral membrane, with the last 2 caudal vertebrae free of the membrane. The dentition differs from Taphozous in having 2 pairs of upper incisors instead of the 1 pair. The first premolar is quite small, with the upper one tightly wedges between the canine and second upper premolar. The skull is thin and papery, with a deep central longitudinal groove and long slender postorbital process. The braincase is strongly inflated anteriorly.
This species occurs in Myanmar and Thailand
Malaysia, Borneo (all of the island) and Indonesia (Sumatra, Riau Archipelago,
Bangka, Belitung, Enggano, Babi Islands, Batu Islands, Nias Island, Mentawai
Islands, Java, Sulawesi) (Simmons 2005). The distribution in Sulawesi is
uncertain. There is a new record from southern Thailand, near Phanom, suggesting
that the Myanmar population is linked to that of Southern
Malaysia (S. Bumrungsri and P. Bates pers. comm.). This species may also have
been recorded from Buton (T. Kingston pers. comm.). It is found at an altitude
of about 50 m in southern Myanmar and 330 m asl in Sumatra (A. Suyanto pers.
Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.
There is very little population information for this species.
It is relatively common on the islands of southern Myanmar (P. Banks pers.
Population Trend: Decreasing
Habitat and Ecology
: This species is found in limestone caves and small crevices
throughout secondary forest in southern Myanmar where colony size reaches 50
individuals. In Southern Thailand a maximum of 100 individuals are found
in manmade caves while smaller colonies are found under hanging rock in tropical
lowland forest (S. Bumrungsri pers. comm.). In Peninsular Malaysia E. monticola
occurs in lowland rainforest, roosts under fallen trees, buttresses and tables
(C. Francis pers. comm.).
There are no major threats to this species throughout its
range. Extraction of limestone may lead to the destruction of caves where this
species is found. Deforestation for agriculture, plantations, logging and as a
result of fire is a major threat in some parts of its range.
This species occurs in protected areas throughout its range.