Naked-rumped Pouched Bat (Saccolaimus saccolaimus)


S. saccolaimus or T. saccolaimus (Payne et al., 1985) have dark-reddish brown or blackish brown upperparts which are irregularly marked with white patches. Their underparts are usually white, but in one colour phase it can be dark brown. They have no wing pouch or in other words, a poorly developed radio-metacarpal pouch. They have a distinct glandular pouch on the throat. The ear is short and broadly rounded with ribbing on the interior of the pinna with a short tragus which has a semicircular margin. It has long and narrow wings with black skin and translucent whitish portions. It is the largest species with the whitest wings.

Range Description:

This widespread species ranges from South Asia, through parts of continental and insular Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Australia. In South Asia, this species is presently known from Bangladesh (Sylhet division) (Sarker and Sarker 2005; Srinivasulu and Srinivasulu 2005), India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal) and Sri Lanka (North Central, Uva and Western provinces) (Molur et al. 2002; Srinivasulu et al. in press). In South Asia, it has been recorded from sea level to 1,200 m asl (Molur et al. 2002). It has been recorded from continental Southeast Asia, in Myanmar, Southern Thailand, Cambodia (known only from a collection in Phnom Phen [G. Csorba pers. comm.]), southwestern Viet Nam, Peninsular Malaysia and possibly Singapore. Within insular Southeast Asia, the species has been recorded from the islands of Sumatra and Java (Indonesia), Borneo (Indonesia and Malaysia only), Sulawesi (Indonesia), the island of Timor (East Timor and Indonesia), Halmahera (Indonesia), the Talaud Islands (Indonesia) and Ternate Island (Indonesia), and the Philippines. In the Philippines it has been the species has been recorded from sea level to 800 m asl (Heaney et al. 1998) from Catanduanes, Luzon and Mindoro (Corbet and Hill 1992) Mindanao (Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Sur provinces), and Negros (Heaney et al. 1998) although it is likely to occur throughout the country except for the Batanes/Babuyan region (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2006). It has been recorded from scattered localities on the island of New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), on Yapen Island (Papua Province, Indonesia), on the Bismarck Archipelago and the Trobriand Islands (Papua New Guinea), on Bougainville Island (Papua New Guinea). It has also been recorded from the island of Guadacanal in the Solomon Islands and from coastal northern and North-eastern Australia (Queensland and Northern Territory) (Corbet and Hill 1992; Flannery 1995; Strahan 1995; Bonaccorso 1998). In the Northern Territory of Australia, there have been relatively few records, with the only confirmed records from the Kakadu lowlands (Woinarski and Milne 2005). This is partly due to the lack of a diagnostic call that can be assigned to the species and can be used for its detection (Woinarkski and Milne 2005).
Countries: Native:
Australia; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Vietnam


In general this is a common species. In South Asia, the population status is considered to be poorly known, but according to Bates and Harrison (1997) it is plentiful. In the Philippines, it is poorly known, but might be moderately common in agricultural areas (Heaney et al. 1998), and is probably common in populated areas, but this require confirmation as there has been little direct survey work undertaken in these modified habitats (L. Heaney pers. comm.). It is locally common in other parts of its Southeast Asian range outside of the Philippines.
Population Trend: Unknown


Biology and Ecology

This medium sized bat roosts in hollow trees and rock crevices and sometimes houses in colonies varying from a few individuals to a few hundred. Roosting bats maintain individual spacing. They are alert at the roost and scurry all over the roost substrate if disturbed. Echolocation clicks produced by this bat in flight are audible. females give birth to a single young per litter.

n the Nicobar Islands in India, it is found in dense forests near to the seashore. In Sri Lanka, the species has been recorded from dense forests, swampy areas and plantations. The diurnal roosts include hollows of old and decaying trees including Kitul Palm and Arecanut Palm, old buildings and rocky crevices. No sexual segregation is observed while roosting. It roosts in small colonies of five or six. This species is known to feed on termites, beetles and other insects and forages close to the ground. Its flight is very fast and high, initially flying 300 to 400 m from ground. It is recorded to emerge very early in the evening from its roost for its foraging bouts (Bates and Harrison 1997). In Southeast Asia, the species is strongly associated with modified habitats, including agricultural areas. It is a canopy feeder which roosts in buildings and shallow caves sometimes occurring in large groups. In the Philippines, records have mainly been from hollow coconut trees (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2006). In Melanesia and Australia, this species has been recorded from wooded areas ranging from open dry sclerophyll woodland to dense tropical moist forest. It roosts in shallow caves, buildings and tree hollows. Roosts may range from a few individuals to several hundred animals. The female gives birth to a single young (Flannery 1995; Strahan 1995; Bonaccorso 1998). In Australia, it has been found in open Pandanus woodland, as well as open eucalypt tall forests and coastal lowlands. It roosts in tree hollows, as well as caves (Woinarski and Milne 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial.

Major Threat(s):

 There are no major threats to this widespread and adaptable species as a whole. In South Asia, it is locally threatened by deforestation, generally resulting from logging operations and from conversion of land to agricultural and other uses (Molur et al. 2002). In Australia, it is significantly threatened in coastal Queensland by clearance of coastal tropical woodland and changes to the fire regime at the northern and southern range limits (Duncan et al. 1999). Vegetation change due to saltwater intrusion and invasion by exotic species (such as Mimosa pigra) may affect habitat suitability (Woinarski and Milne 2005).

 Conservation Actions:

 This species has been recorded from many protected areas, and over much of the species range no direct conservation actions are needed. In South Asia, the species has been recorded from protected areas such as Campbell Bay National Park (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) and Kanha National Park (Madhya Pradesh). With, further studies needed on distribution, abundance, breeding biology and general ecology of this species. In South Asia, populations of this species should be monitored to record changes in abundance and distribution. There is also a need to identify populations that are being threatened by human induced habitat alterations in order to develop mitigation measures (C. Srinivasulu pers. comm.). It has been recorded from several protected areas in Australia (eg. Kakadu National Park), however, there is a need to identify and protect important roosting and foraging sites for the species. Further studies are needed in Australia into the distribution, abundance, natural history and threats to this species. The eastern Australian form has been described as a subspecies, and there is a there is a need for additional taxonomic work (T. Reardon pers. comm.). There is also a need to resolve the taxonomic status of the Northern Territory population relative to that in north-eastern Queensland, as well as a study to determine its habitat, distribution, population size, and status (Woinarski and Milne 2005).