Tickell's Bat (Hesperoptenus tickelli)

Description:

HB: 66-67; T: 50-55; FA:55-58; E: 16; HF:12.

The pelage is greyish yellow to golden brown; the black wings are marked with white. The head is grey, with a tuft of whitish hairs at the base of the ears. The head is furred to the nostrils; the ears are covered with short hairs, and the interformeral membrane has rather thick hair at the base, thinning towards the distal end. There are very small friction pads on the thumbs. The head is broad and flat; the muzzle is blunt, swollen at the sides, and slightly depressed above in the centre. The wings attach at the base of the toes. The ears are oval. The second upper incisor is located behind the first,; the upper incisor is unicuspid (bisuspid in most other pipistrelle like genera. The small second incisor may appear to be a basal cusp of the first incisor.

Range Description:

This species is widespread in South Asia and mainland Southeast Asia. In South Asia, it is widely distributed species and is presently known from Bangladesh (Dhaka Division), Bhutan (no exact location) (Koopman 1993; Simmons 2005), India (Andaman Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal), Nepal (Mid Western Nepal) and Sri Lanka (Anuradhapura, Northern, North-western, Sabaragamuva, Southern, Central and Uva provinces) (Molur et al. 2002). In South Asia, it has been recorded up to 1,000 m asl (Molur et al. 2002). In Southeast Asia, it has been recorded from Myanmar, Thailand (including Sunate Karnphum), Lao PDR (Duckworth et al. 1999), Vietnam (Hendrichsen et al. 2001) and Cambodia (Hendrichsen et al. 2001), and is probably more widespread than is currently known.
Countries: Native:
Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Vietnam

 Population:

In South Asia, although it is a widely distributed species the abundance, population size and trends for this species are presently not known (Molur et al. 2002). It is widespread and relatively common in Southeast Asia, although it often flies at between nine and twelve metres above the ground and so is not regularly captured in surveys (Bates and Harrison 1997).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology:

 In South Asia, this species roosts solitary or in small groups of a few individuals among dense canopied trees. It is found in lowlands, hills and near seashores (Molur et al. 2002).The species forages in open areas among paddy fields, grasslands, with a steady and slow flight, and mostly feeds on beetles, termites and other insects. A single young is born  in May. Bates and Harrison 1997). In Southeast Asia, it is considered to be a forest edge species that can be found close to degraded areas (such as agricultural land). They usually appear early, flying low and steadily, wheeling in large circles. Their feeding territory is strongly defended against conspecifics ,though and male female pair may share the same territory. It is not known how permanent these pairs are
Systems: Terrestrial

Major Threat(s):

There are no major threats to this species as a whole. In South Asia, this species is locally threatened by habitat loss, largely through commercial logging and the conversion of land to agricultural use and human settlements. It is also threatened in some areas by hunting for local consumption and for medicinal purposes (Molur et al. 2002).

 Conservation Actions:

 In South Asia, there are no direct conservation measures in place for this species and the species has not been recorded from any protected areas. Further studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, reproduction and ecology of this species. Populations of this species should be monitored to record changes in abundance and distribution. General habitat maintenance, conservation and restoration are needed. Public awareness activities are recommended (Molur et al. 2002). In Southeast Asia, the species has been recorded from a number of protected areas and no direct conservation measures are currently needed.

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