Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus luctus)
HB: 75-95; T: 48-56; FA: 72-75; E: 35-42;
The fur is rather woolly, dark grey approaching black; there is a grey iridescence on the hairs of the upperparts. Older individuals are browner. The nose leaf is dull black; the anterior leaf is large, projecting over the lip. It is deeply grooved in the centre. The sella has a lappet on each side. The dorsal connecting process is very low, extending on both sides. The lancet is long, terminating in a blunt point. The ears are long and pointed, with the outer margin concave below the tip. The second premolar is usually with the tooth row; the upper first premolar is always in the tooth row, though its cusp is rudimentary or lacking.
This species is widespread in South Asia, southern China and
South East Asia. In South Asia it is presently known from Bangladesh (Chittagong
and Sylhet divisions), India (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya,
Nagaland, Uttaranchal, Sikkim and West Bengal) and Nepal (Central and Eastern
Nepal) in South Asia (Molur et al. 2002). In south-eastern China, the species has
been recorded from Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan, Fujian,
Guangxi, Anhui, Yunnan and Hainan Island. It has been recorded throughout most
of continental Southeast Asia, and ranges into Indonesia (Sumatra, Java and
Bali) and the island of Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia). It has been
recorded from sea level to an elevation of 1,600 m asl.
Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Nepal; Singapore; Thailand; Vietnam
The species appears to be found at naturally low densities.
Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat and Ecology:
In South Asia, this species is a forest dweller, it
roosts solitary or in pairs in small to large caves, rocky outcrops and
overhanging ledges and large trees with hollow (Molur et al. 2002). Its flight
is low just above the ground and feeds on coleopterans, termites and other
insects. In Southeast Asia it is considered to be forest dependent, although it
is present in degraded forest (and is apparently somewhat resistant to human
disturbance). Roost in small groups in rocky outcrops, rock crevices, niches in
cliffs, shallow holes in earth banks, roosts of trees, and hollow trees. In
China, most have been collected in forested areas and have been collected from
tunnels, old mine shafts, hollow trees and under thick bark.
In view of the species wide range, it seems probable
that there are no overall major threats to the species. In South Asia, the
habitat of this species is being deforested for timber, firewood and conversion
to agricultural use. It is also threatened by hunting for medicinal purposes (Debojit
Pukhan pers. comm. January 2002, Molur et al. 2002).
There are no direct conservation measures in place. In South Asia, it is recorded from protected areas in India like Satpura National Park in Madhya Pradesh. Taxonomy, distribution, ecology, habitat and population monitoring are recommended for this species (Molur et al. 2002). In Southeast Asia, it has been collected in a number of protected areas, including Vu Quang National Park, Vietnam (Borissenko and Kruskop, 2003).